11. Mansa Musa of Timbuktu B
12. Amda Sion: The Power of Confidence A
13. The Swahili Poets of East Africa A
14. Slavery D
15. Nation Builders: Dingiswayo, Shaka, and Mizilikazi B
16. From the Great Trek to Apartheid C
17. Their Own Way--Nkrumah, Kenyatta, and Haile Selassie C
18. The Voice of New Africa A
19. Additional Topics
a. Dr. Livingstone C
b. Cecil Rhodes C
c. Dr. Schweitzer C
d. The Zanzibar War A
A Additional information very hard to find
B A moderate amount of additional information should be available
C Plenty of stuff available--an easy job
D Too much information available--this will require a lot of sorting
Africa may well be the next
world civilization. For
people seem to be entering a new Artistic Age of self discovery and
expression. An excitement throbs in the air--much like Renaissance
Historians are just beginning to realize that Africa
already went through
the first stage of civilization before white men arrived to interrupt
deserves more space
in the history books than it is getting here.
But the research has barely begun.
a few years, when we know more, we can write a much fuller history of
MANSA MUSA OF TIMBUKTU
Forget Tarzan, Africa is not one big jungle.
Desert covers almost half of the continent, and open
almost another half. Less
one-tenth is jungle, and less than one-tenth is mountainous.
Not many creatures can find food in the jungles, except
birds. The big game
animals live in
the grasslands. So
did the people
who built the first African cities.
In west Africa, the city of Timbuktu became a great
between the salt mines of the desert to the north and the gold mines of
jungle to the south. At
empires rose and fell in the grasslands surrounding Timbuctu.
The empire of Ghana had already flourished for several
Arab traders arrived about the year 1050.
raids eventually destroyed the empire, and missionaries converted the
rulers to Islam. But
Ghana was pure
African. Its people
the African religion.
One religious belief covered most of Africa, It was a
belief in one god,
who lives in the sky. Legends
that the sky once hovered much closer--so that children wiped their
fingers on the sky, and anyone who felt hungry took a bite out of a
People pestered and abused God so much that he climbed a
spider web up to
where the sky is now. With
distant, it becomes necessary to have messengers.
The spirits of dead ancestors could carry the messages.
So could the king, who was treated like a god.
But if the king acted badly, or even if his health failed,
it was obvious
that he had lost touch with heaven, and it became the duty of every
remove the king.
Another part of African religion lay in their concept of
Time had three dimensions: present, the past within living
the distant past. When
died, he moved into the remembered past.
his last acquaintance died, he moved into the distant past. The future did not exist
yet; it was only potential time.
Early visitors to Africa thought the natives wasted a lot
of time sitting
together in the shade each day. Actually,
they were very busy creating time--taking something which had not
before, and making it a memorable part of their lives.
needs much more research,
When Ghana fell, the empire of Mali (MAH-lee) sprang up in
It was one of the largest and wealthiest countries in the
world at that
time. The rulers of
Muslims, but most of the people kept their African religion.
Kankan Musa (MOO-sa) ruled as emperor, or Mansa, in the
As a good Muslim, Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca,
He took with him
sixty thousand bodyguards and servants, and eighty camels to carry five
dollars worth of gold. He
of spending money, and borrowed more in Egypt.
Never had the people of Europe or Asia seen so much wealth
They quickly added Timbuktu on the far corner of their
Mansa Musa built the mosque of Timbuktu, and made that
city a great
center of learning.
Then the Songhoy tribe revolted and took over the empire.
About 1500, Askia the Great reorganized the tribal
governments of west
Africa into a single Songhoy nation.
judges, teachers, and writers abounded in Timbuktu.
By 1600, Arab raiders with guns had captured Timbuktu. They cut off the trade
routes, and prosperity ended.
Timbuktu has crumbled, so that today it remains little
more than a mud
But some of the glory of west African civilization can
still be seen in
their bronze statues. The
from the Benin people in the jungle just south of the empires.
They first carved wax paper-thin, then made molds around
it and filled
the molds with metal. It
probably the most skillful metal casting the world has ever known. African woodcarvings have
rotted in the dampness, but some
tribes still carved excellent masks in the 1800's.
AMDA SION--THE POWER OF CONFIDENCE
On the east coast of Africa, Ethiopia has been a Christian
over sixteen hundred years--longer than any other country in the world.
It is a mountainous land.
when the Islamic religion swept down through east Africa, the Ethiopian
Christians remained tucked away in their mountain safety.
the early 1300's, the Muslims decided to squeeze out this
last pocket of Christianity in Africa.
emperor of Ethiopia at that time was Amda Sion I (AIM-da TSEE-own).
He had already ordered the beginning of the Royal
account of Ethiopian history which has been continued down through the
The Chronicles do not mention that Amda Sion was a
troublesome young man
who seduced several girls, including his sisters who loved him dearly.
When priests objected, he threatened to throw them out of
the country and
tear down their churches. The
Chronicles would have us believe that Amda Sion straightened up in the
national disaster, and became a good Christian leader.
Perhaps a different interpretation could explain these
Amda Sion had faith in one thing--himself.
He made a lot of religious speeches to rouse up the
enthusiasm of his
soldiers. But for
needed nothing. He
ate and slept
hardly at all. He
soldiers on to battle after battle.
liked to march in a large circle, rather than return through safe
Then the Muslims pulled all of their armies together.
The Ethiopian army marched through the lush green
mountains to stop them
where the mountains meet the desert.
heard a noise like thunder, and saw Muslim soldiers as far as they
Amda Sion's soldiers panicked and ran away, leaving just
Amda Sion and
his six generals. So
he told the
six to attack the right side, and he would take the left.
Amda Sion reached the desert first, and rode out against
invading army. The
not believe their eyes. They
thought that only a devil would dare to ride out against
them alone. Panic
seized them, and
they wheeled their horses around.
Amda Sion drove them out of the country.
By the time he got back to his soldiers, the priests were
proclaiming a miracle--that God and all his host of angles rode with
and that was why the Muslims fled.
priests did not explain why the Muslims could see the angels, but the
Even Amda Sion began to wonder if he had done it alone, or
if he had been
been stretched beyond belief. Doubts
began to bother him. From
nothing went right. His
crumbled away. He
spent the rest of
his troubled life wondering, doubting...
THE SWAHILI POETS OF EAST AFRICA
In the year 1300, the language situations in Europe and
Africa were about
alike. If Europeans
wanted to write, they could only do it in the
Latin language. If
to write, they could only do it in the Arabic language, (Ethiopia was
exception.) Then in
Europeans learned to write their own languages in the Latin alphabet. You are reading an example
of that now. At
about the same time, Africans learned to write the Bantu
language in the Arabic alphabet. They
called that written language Swahili.
spread through most of eastern Africa.
But in western Africa (where many Americans trace their
ancestry) people continued to speak in African languages and write in
separate Arabic language.
High civilization developed in east Africa, but Western
not studied it as much as they have west Africa.
Eastern cities of stone have been discovered, but not very
investigated yet. The
these cities was Zimbabwe (zim-BOB-way), far to the south.
It flourished through trade with Arabia, India, and China.
The first Europeans who arrived were not yet advanced
understand how commerce works. They
interrupted the flow of trade, and Zimbabwe crumbled in
Slavery destroyed civilization in west Africa.
But since European slave traders seldom reached east
Africa, some parts
of the culture continued there for a few more centuries.
One part was Swahili poetry.
Swahili poetry has much stronger rhythms and pauses than
the poetry of
other languages. For
centuries, it was written only for use in the Islamic mosques.
But in the 1800s, poets began to write about African
religions, and about
non-religious subjects, The most important person to bring about that
Muyaka bin Haji (
of Mombasa. Here is
one of his
HAS A MIGHTY NOISE by MUYAKA BIN HAJI
has a mighty noise
say the elders
you to wind round your loins+
Despise not silence
nor have I despised it
Silence has a future
take care of silence.
is a sudden chance
to the very ones concerned
Silence will bring forth smoke
so don't open your eyes
Silence may mean deceit#
for ever and ever eternally,
Silence has a future
so take care of silence.
lift up your eyes
them up and look
wherever you go
catches the breath
glides around like a soaring bird
Silence has a future
so take care of silence.
yourself in silence
Swahili poets flourished. Mwana
Kupona (MWAH-na koo-PO-na) was the widow of a famous
rebel chieftain. Her
long poem to
her daughter contains much advice.
is typical of Swahili poetry.
POEM by MWANA KUPONA
child, be not sharp-tongued
like me, your mother
was married ten years
we did not quarrel one single day.
was wed by your father
happiness and laughter
did not abase* our mutual respect
all the days that we lived together.
one day did we quarrel
met with no ill from me
from him none did I encounter
until the time when he was chosen.+
when death came
repeatedly told me his content
and resigned himself in peace to God
while my heart was filled with grief.
that time unto this day
yet cease not from lamentation#
when I remember the ease
and plenty of our accustomed life.
people heed one another
ever they share fond memories
but those who strive against each other
regret it for eternity.
Rhythm has always loomed important in African culture. Drum rhythms pulse through
This can still be heard in modern jazz.
And body rhythms--dancing--have always figured importantly
example of African music is the Missa Luba–the
Catholic Mass sung in
Latin, but with music of the Congo.
is not pleasant. And
about it are not pleasant.
The African tribes had always practiced slavery.
Captives in any tribal war became slaves until the next
Slavery was an accident which could happen to anyone.
And it might well be temporary.
slave still got respect as a person.
This type of slavery had been common in most
Greece and Rome. It
had nothing to
do with race. For
Arabs had bought girls from Africa and other places to fill their
This too had nothing to do with race or inferiority.
In fact, some Italian cities in the 1200s became the first
all the world to see anything wrong with slavery, and prohibit it.
This small slave trade formed a part of African life, and
to the 1930s. But
discovery of America, a new type of slavery began, which would destroy
civilizations of west Africa.
The American Indians had died by the millions from
The Spanish and other conquerors wanted to fill their
empty new lands.
Some African chiefs near the coast agreed to sell their
extra slaves, and
England did most of the slave shipping, followed by France
Holland and Denmark did some too.
But Europeans did not actually catch the slaves, They
waited on islands
off the coast, while coastal chiefs sent raiding parties inland.
Some chiefs even sold their own tribes into slavery.
Before the slave trade ended, approximately twenty million
been shipped from Africa. The
organized society could not function with so many people
gone, and the empires fell apart.
The slave trade destroyed African civilization in another
The slavers clustered along the underside of the "bulge'
African continent. This
jungle fringe between the ocean and the empires of the grasslands.
These jungle peoples had never been as civilized as their
European guns, they raided the settled cities and
Africans either scattered or were enslaved.
More rowdy and brutish Africans terrorized the continent.
During the Enlightenment, some Englishmen (especially the
that slavery was wrong. One
Englishman named Granville Sharp bought some African land at Sierra
(see-AIR-a lee-OWN) and made plans for a model community where black
could return to their homeland. Sharp's
plans included a tax on anyone rich enough not to work, and a model
system where a wife might visit her husband overnight.
The first boat of settlers brought black Englishmen and
they could make easy money by selling the native tribes into slavery. Poor Sharp; he had planned
a perfect community, but had not
counted on human imperfection.
White settlers soon brought more slavery and a lot of
Sierra Leone. Then
Canadian farmers who had once lived in the United States, but had
fought on the
British side in the Revolutionary War.
a band of black outlaws which had been kicked out of Jamaica. England decided to stop
all slave traffic on the seas; every
time the English navy found a ship of slaves, it set them ashore in
Leone. The colony
grew, but the
white English government officials never let the black people rule
After the French Revolution, France also stopped ships
full of slaves,
and set them free at Gabon. But
French government kept control there until 1960.
By the early 1800s in the United States, one-fifth of all
had achieved their freedom--half a million of them.
Government leaders decided it would be better to have
free black people out of the way in Africa.
So they established an American colony at Liberia, next to
There was continuous trouble between the black settlers
and the natives
who did not want to give up their land or their profitable slave trade.
In the 1840s, the United States had worsening slave
problems at home--so
it tried to get rid of Liberia. Since
Sierra Leone did not want to take on any more problems, the Liberians
their independence and wrote a constitution patterned on that of the
States. Liberia and
the only two African nations to hold onto their independence during the
period which followed.
In the twentieth century, Liberia has prospered from
plantations. In the
slavery had been stamped out through the rest of the world, there came
embarrassing discovery that black Liberians of American descent still
native tribesmen into slavery.
the modern slave trade ended where it had begun four hundred years
NATION BUILDERS: DINGISWAYO, SHAKA, AND MZILIKAZI
The slave trade did less damage in the eastern half of
So civilization limped on, and continued to develop there.
By 1800, eastern Africa began to enter an Artistic Age.
Swahili poetry threw off its religious limitations and
colorful personalities began to organize nations.
It was the same process that had occurred in the growth of
About 1800, down in the southeast corner of Africa, two
sons of a chief
tried to revolt. One
and the other fled. He
name to Dingiswayo (ding-gis-WHY-o), which means "the wanderer."
He visited many tribes.
made friends with European explorers and learned everything he could
On the coast, he probably met traders from Arabia, India,
When his father died, Dingiswayo returned home with grand
building a nation.
He organized his tribe into a strong army.
Then he invited other tribes to join him.
Sometimes he used force, but usually the neighboring
could be persuaded to live under the kind and generous rule of
He built a small and secure nation before he was captured
and killed by
an enemy--an enemy whose life the kindly Dingiswayo had already spared
Dingiswayo's greatest general was Shaka (SHAH-ka).
He came from the Zulu tribe.
Shaka took over Dingiswayo's lands and enlarged them tremendously.
Shaka was one of the world's military geniuses.
He never lost a battle.
changed African warfare from distant spear-throwing to close stabbing.
He made his soldiers throw away their sandals because they
faster barefoot. Always
he set the standards for great endurance.
His favorite battle plan was to completely surround his
enemies so that
none could escape alive. The
disciplined Zulu army spread fear wherever it marched,
As Shaka's power grew, so did his cruelty.
He ordered mass executions simply because he felt angry.
It is estimated that Shaka and his army caused two million
When people could stand it no more, his brothers
But Shaka did feel kindly toward his favorite general,
When Mzilikazi broke away to form his own Ndebele
Shaka did not bother to stop him.
ruled the huge area which today forms Rhodesia and most of Botswana and
Union of South Africa.
When white settlers penetrated northward from South
learned that his efficient army could not stand up against guns. After disastrous battles,
the sad king moved his people
farther north where they lived peacefully until he died in his eighties.
During the reign of Mzilikazi's son, the white settlers
too, and took over the remains of that black nation.
There was a fourth nation-builder--King Moshoeshoe
Lesotho (Les-SUE-tu). Other
leaders despised him because he would not make a fight against the
white men. But sly
quickly saw that he would get more protection from missionaries than he
from armies. So he
missionaries in (though he never became Christian), and played off one
nation against another. By
he died. Moshoeshoe
a guarantee that tiny Lesotho would remain a black-ruled nation.
FROM THE GREAT TREK TO APARTHEID
During the Baroque age, a group of Dutch Puritans fled to
tip of Africa. European
killed off most of the nearby tribes, so the white settlers considered
land. They planned
They called themselves "Boers," which is Dutch for
generations, they began to call themselves "Afrikaners."
With slave labor, they created large and prosperous farms.
A hundred and fifty years later, Napoleon got control of
England quickly seized all of the Dutch colonies before France could.
After Napoleon's downfall, England gave back most of the
colonies--but not South Africa. England
freed the slaves and gave all citizens the vote,
This so angered the Afrikaners that many of them decided
to leave and
start a new country to the north.
long wagon trains, they made the Great Trek.
They founded two independent republics: Transvaal and
Orange Free State.
The Afrikaners were not able to set up slavery again, but
they did not
allow black people any equality or a vote.
Meanwhile, another migration was happening.
The Zulus and other tribes had gradually been moving
The two migrations smashed into each other during the
The guns of the white Afrikaners destroyed the black
The lands of the black newcomers became the lands of the
In the 1880s and 90s, European nations grabbed up all of
Liberia and Ethiopia. England
captured the two Afrikaner republics during the Boer War, and made them
British South Africa. One
army leader, Lord Baden-Powell, noticed that his black soldiers could
of themselves far better than the white soldiers could.
He studied the survival games which African boys learned.
Back in England, he taught these survival skills to other
boys, The idea
spread all over the world, and was called the Boy Scouts.
Meanwhile, the Afrikaners bitterly waited for the day when
throw off English rule and once again set up their own racist society. Some tried to revolt
during World War I.
Later, many admired Hitler's racial policies, though they
did not gather
enough votes to put them into effect until after World War II.
Then in the late 1940s, South Africa began the policy of
separation known as "Apartheid."
According to the theory, black tribes would be given back
lands, with the freedom to establish their own independent nations. But it never worked that
White people ruled and black people suffered
terribly-even though the
population is 66% of African ancestry, 20% of European ancestry, 30% of
ancestry, and 11% of mixed ancestry.
white people could vote. The
set aside for black reservations were tiny and strictly regulated.
People of Asian or mixed blood had no vote and no place to
People could not travel freely from one area to another. Every person had to carry
an identity card stating his race.
(This classification was done by guessing from a person's
This haphazard method separated many brothers from
sisters, husbands from
benches, bathrooms, restaurants, and schools were segregated.
The United Nations condemned South Africa for violating
human rights, and
tried to get all nations to cut off trade relations.
The plan did not work--mainly because the United States
THEIR OWN WAY--NKRUMAH, KENYATTA, AND HAILE SELASSIE
Most nations of Africa regained their independence in the
about seventy-five years of European rule.
The independence movement probably began in the 1940s
among a small group
of African students in London. From
west Africa, the group included the young and ambitious Kwame Nkrumah
n-KROO-ma) who later became the first president of Ghana.
From east Africa was the older and cultured Jomo Kenyatta
who later became the first president of Kenya.
And from South Africa came Peter Abrahams, the writer.
(See the next chapter.) This group tried to figure out
ways for Africa to
become itself--not just a copy of Western civilization.
When Nkrumah returned to Ghana, he grew into a popular
He was a superb showman.
offered a mixture of Christianity, Communism, and tribal magic.
He became prime minister.
had scheduled Ghana to be the first colony to gain independence. Nkrumah worked to speed up
the process. After
Ghana became independent, Nkrumah broke the ties with
the West, and moved closer toward Communism.
He made speeches which fired the spirits of freedom-loving
over Africa. But
Nkrumah the great
speaker had little ability as an administrator.
He thought he had to do everything himself, and soon
erected a statue of
himself forty feet tall. As
voice of greater Africa, he went to Viet Nam to settle a dispute
Communist world and the Western world.
he was out of the country, the Ghanaian army removed him from office.
By then, the Ghanaian people felt happy to be rid of him.
Independence came violently in Kenya.
A terrorist group called the Mau-Mau murdered black and
Kenyatta had been organizing a political party.
He spoke for Independence and against the Mau-Mau.
But to many frightened white people, black rule seemed the
same as black
was accused of
being a Mau-Mau leader, and sent to prison.
When independence finally came eight years later,
politicians refused to
cooperate under anyone except old Kenyatta.
He was released from prison to take ever the government.
Kenyatta would not follow the West or the Communist world. Instead, he slowly
educated his people to discover their own
potentials and their own forms of society.
Some people criticized that Kenya was not moving forward
as fast as other
nations who adopted foreign ideas.
often smiled and reminded them of an old African sayings "When
fight, it is the grass that gets hurt."
When independence suddenly swept across Africa, only
Ethiopia had long
experience in orderly self-rule. Many
new African presidents looked to the Emperor Haile Selassie (HY-lee
for guidance. He
had been involved
in politics since the reign of his distant cousin, the Emperor Menelik
(MEN-e-lik). In the
Menelik had modernized Ethiopia and fought off the
Italians who tried to
make it a colony. The
next emperor was Menelik's grandson who converted to
Islam. This was too
much for the
Christian nation, so Haile Selassie helped lead a revolt which made
daughter the Empress Zauditu (
was the first woman
ever to rule the country. When
died, Haile Selassie became emperor for a short time before the
him out. He
appealed before the
League of Nations, but nothing happened.
World War II he was able to return.
of his first acts as emperor had been to grant a constitution to the
As the senior statesman of Africa, Haile Selassie helped
to set up the
Organization for African Unity. From
his own pocket, he built a meeting hall for the OAU in Ethiopia. But Ethiopia remained one
of the poorest countries in Africa.
People grew bitter because their emperor was spending his
others, instead of giving it to them.
history, the emperor had protected the people from the land-owning
They wanted Haile Selassie to equalize the wealth of lords
But he had already given his powers to the people, and
they had not yet
learned how to use them. Discontent
grew, and in 1974 young army officers removed the
old emperor from leadership.
Meanwhile, on the other side of the world, the
Rastafarians of Jamaica
had long revered Haile Selassie as the promised black messiah.
Nkrumah, Kenyatta, and Haile Selassie were men of
than their people had, greater vision than powerful outsiders had.
They saw the future of what Africa can make of itself.
THE VOICE OF NEW AFRICA
In the twentieth century, African art has had a strong
Western art--particularly the mask-like faces by abstract artists like
African music, transplanted in America, has grown into
With independence in the 1960s, Africans began a rapid
self-discovery--political and artistic.
artistic self-discovery most often took the form of literature.
But even before independence, two African writers achieved
PATON (PAY-ton)--a white South African who disagreed with the unequal
of black people. His
the Beloved Country, shows how the policy of hatred keeps
good people apart
and makes them suffer.
)--He was born in an Asian family on the island of
Madagascar, just off
the coast of Africa. He
French. Since his poetry is difficult to describe, here are two
from the thigh bone of a mighty bull,
on the bleak hillsides
by the sun.
from the reed that quivers in the wind
on the banks of running water
with moonlight dreams.
the deeps of evening, play them together
if to right the sphered canoe+
the round boat (the sun) right side up
by the shores of sky
your plaintive incantations#
they reach the wind-gods
the earth-gods and the wood-gods
the gods of sand?
out a note where the ear can catch the tread of a maddened bull
toward the desert
by thirst and hunger
the foot of the tree without shadow
fruit, without leaves.
like a reed that bends beneath the weight of a passing bird--
a bird trapped by a child
a bird lost from the flock
at his reflection in running water
for their past
the songs of your grief.
out of the walls of the night
Gnaws the milk-cake@ of the moon?
will be gone
bloodstained marks of teeth.
who have been drunk all night
those who have just left the gaming tables
is that sixpence
on the green table?"
will say one
had lost everything
he killed himself!"
they all will snigger*
stagger and fall.
The moon will be gone.
rat will have dragged it into his hole.
Around 1960, brilliant black writers popped up all over
Here are just a few:
ABRAHAMS--He grew up in South Africa, but wrote most of his books in
countries of England and Jamaica.
book, Wild Conquest, describes the clash between
the Boers on the Great
Trek and the empire of Mzilikazi.
shows both sides of the conflict; some black militants have complained
ACHEBE--(CHIN-oo-a a-CHEB-ee)--He is from Nigeria.
His novel, Things Fall Apart, tells
how the missionary teachings
disrupted the vigorous African way of life.
was from Uganda, and wrote originally in his tribal language.
Song of Lawino is a long poem spoken by
a traditional African
complains about the falseness of Africans trying to
imitate Westerners--particularly about the modern second wife her
RIVE (reev)--He was from South Africa, and wrote several powerful short
is about a girl of mixed race who
hated her black mother, but begins to see life through her mother's
HOUSE--To escape the censors in South Africa, she fled to the United
"Conspiracy" is a short story about interracial love in a
THEODORA SUTHERLAND--She studied in the West before returning to Ghana,
for children and adults. "New
Life at Kyerefaso" is a powerful little fable about what people can do
they have pride in themselves.
This looks like the beginning of an Artistic Age in Africa.
If the patterns of history hold true, much more will
David Livingstone was a Scotch doctor sent as a missionary
tales of cannibals boiling missionaries in huge pots.
But evidence shows only six missionaries killed by natives
in all of
central and east Africa until European nations seized political control
1880s. Many of the
were Victorians who tried to stamp out African dance and make the
far more clothes than was healthy.
Dr. Livingstone fell in love with Africa and the African
He resigned from missionary work and spent the rest of his
the continent, learning as much as he could.
He also wrote many articles to stop the Arab slave-trade.
Then he disappeared into the interior, and people around
the world began
to wonder what had happened. An American newspaperman named Henry M.
found him living peacefully in an African village.
Dr. Livingstone did not rejoice at being found.
When he died, the Africans he had loved so dearly
preserved his body and
carried it from the heart of the continent out to the sea, so he could
in Westminster Abbey with the other great Englishmen.
Cecil Rhodes was an Englishman who discovered a diamond
mine in South
Africa at age eighteen. He
it was important for England to own all of Eastern Africa.
So he made a deal to work the gold mines ruled by
He soon took over the area now called Rhodesia.
He became dictator of South Africa, but had to resign when
he got caught
paying for a revolution in the Boer republics.
This led to the Boer War.
Rhodes had moved on to Rhodesia, where he negotiated peace with the
riding alone into their territory.
Rhodes left his huge fortune for scholarships at Oxford
England. The Rhodes
remains one of the most respected in the world.
Albert Schweitzer was a French philosopher and organist. In his twenties, he became
the world's foremost expert on the
music of Bach. But
he decided to
devote half of his life to himself, and half to others.
So at age thirty, he gave up his brilliant organ career to
study medicine. He
missionary doctor in Gabon. But
several times he did make concert tours in Europe and America to raise
his hospital. Some
people said he
was old-fashioned because he would allow no electricity in his hospital.
But Schweitzer remained a man of great love who tried not
to disturb the
African way of life any more than necessary.
Near the end of his long life, he was awarded the Nobel
Prize for Peace.
The Zanzibar War took place August 27, 1896, from 9:O2 to
9:4O in the
morning. It lasted
minutes, and was the shortest war known in history.
Six years earlier, England had taken over the country, but
still kept his empty title. When
died, his cousin became sultan and declared independence from England.
What he did not know was that the divisions of the British
challenged each other to a ballgame at Zanzibar, and had gathered in
They immediately bombarded the palace into a pile of
rocks, and sank
Zanzibar's one battleship. The
sultan fled to German territory, and the war was over.
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