MEXICO AND CANADA
31. Priests Lead the Rabble: Hidalgo and Morelos C
32. Iturbide—Revolution to Keep Things the Same B
33. Santa Anna, Jack-in-the-box President B
34. Good Guys on Both Sides--Maximilian and Juarez B
35. Porfirio Diaz—Modernizer or Monster? B
36. The Real Mexican Revolution--Madero and Carranza B
37. Bandido Patriots: Zapata and Pancho Villa C
38. Cardenas: The Promise Fulfilled A
39. Canada, the Quiet Neighbor
a. The Acadians B
b. Maski-pitoon A
c. Sir John A. Macdonald B
d. The Riel Rebellions B
e. Sir Wilfred Laurier B
f. The Doukhobors A
g. Grey Owl A
h. W. L. Mackenzie King B
i. Pierre Elliot Trudeau D
A Additional information very hard to find
B A moderate amount of additional information should be available
C Plenty of stuff available--an easy job
D Too much information available--this will require a lot of sorting
PRIESTS LEAD THE RABBLE: HIDALGO AND MORELOS
In Mexico, as in Peru, Indians led the first struggles for
from Spain. In the
early 1700s, a thirteen- or fourteen-year-old girl
known as Maria de la Candelaria (Maria of the candlelight ceremony)
Mayas to throw out the Catholic priests and take over their official
They turned the hated Spanish racial laws upside-down;
women became the wives or servants of Indian men.
Spain quickly crushed the rebellion.
Maria, her father, and her young husband escaped to the
hills, where they
live on in legend. Fifty
later, a small brawl between drunken soldiers and drunken Indians
The Mayas then crowned an educated baker as King Jacinto
Soldiers soon captured, tortured, and executed him.
Then another fifty years passed.
In North America and in South America, rich young white
men led the
independence movements. But
Mexico, the wealthy whites muddled in confusion.
Some enjoyed their positions of privilege.
The others could not agree on what they did want.
No one seemed to have any leadership ability.
So the leadership passed on to the Indians, those of mixed
people, the poor. The
movement became much more than a struggle between Spain and Mexico; it
war between rich and poor.
Father Miguel Hidalgo (me-GEL ee-THAL-go) served as the
elderly priest of
the dusty little Indian village of Dolores.
In 1810, the government decided to arrest him and others
plotting for revolution, The mayor's wife, Josefa Dominguez, sent him a
He rang the church bells to gather his congregation, and
gave the cry for
revolution. He did
not talk to
these poor farmers about kings and European politics but about poverty
injustices they suffered every day.
mob formed and swarmed through the countryside, with Father Hidalgo
pistols in the lead. More
poor people joined--a hundred thousand of them.
They killed rich landowners, smashed up their property,
and stole their
wealth. Some of the
leaders felt horrified at this violence, but Father Hidalgo believed it
necessary. The rich
sides tried to
outdo each other in the cruel ways they tortured and killed their
The mob captured one city after another.
Father Hidalgo could barely control the group any more.
He did get them to pause before attacking Mexico City.
This was a mistake, for it gave the government time to
The small government army scattered Hidalgo's poorly-armed
The rebel leaders fled into hiding, and began betraying
Father Hidalgo was captured.
Catholic church stripped him of his position as priest, so that the
could shoot him. His
displayed in an iron cage with those of three other revolutionary
Mexicans today consider him the father of their country.
Father Jose Maria Morelos (mo-RAY-loce) had once studied
Hidalgo. He was a
mixture of white, red, and black races.
But he suffered poor health, and always wore a bandana
headaches. He took
revolutionary leadership after Father Hidalgo died.
Morelos was a much better organizer.
He developed a small but disciplined army.
And he set a committee at work drafting a constitution
which would give
the land back to the poor, and set up a democratic government.
He controlled much of Mexico and brought order to those
General Morelos believed in democracy.
He insisted that he only served the wishes of the
revolutionary congress. So
when the war hit hard times and the congress asked him to
resign, he did. The
congressmen could not lead, and their army soon lost.
They shamefacedly asked Father Morelos to lead them to
safety. He did so,
and then led the
Spanish army off in another direction.
caught him, the Catholic church removed him from the priesthood, and he
The revolution lived on.
Hidalgo had made it a powerful idea; Father Morelos made it a powerful
ITURBIDE--REVOLUTION TO KEEP THINGS THE SAME
Throughout North and South America, the independence
movements were led
by men who wanted changes. But
Mexico the opposite happened, For ten years, poor people had fought for
But the army of the rich, led by General Agustin de
day ee-toor-BE-thay) had just about put down the revolution.
Red-haired Iturbide mixed with the rich white people, and
tried to hide
the fact that he was part Indian.
he lost his army position for running a protection racket on the silver
entrusted to his guard. Young
Iturbide retired to a monastery to plot and wait for his next chance.
The Mexican establishment felt secure; their world was not
change after all. Then
happened in Spain: liberals forced the king to guarantee the rights of
people, and cut back on the power of the church and the rich.
These changes were supposed to apply to the Spanish
colonies as well.
The church and the rich in Mexico decided to revolt rather
than make the
Spanish governor to let Iturbide take charge of the army again.
He was sent to put down the last of the poor people's
But when he could not beat the peasants, he invited them
to join him in a
Iturbide promised something for everyone: for the rich, he
king of Mexico; for the Catholic church, he promised that there would
freedom for other religions; and for the poor, he promised equality
law. All groups
He won the army over by promising promotions for the
Since everyone joined the revolution, there was no one to
The Spanish governor left peacefully, and Mexico became
The new Mexican congress invited the Spanish king to flee
Spain and come rule old-fashioned Mexico.
the king had gotten control in Spain once more, and warned the Mexicans
beck into the Spanish empire. As
usual, the rich white members of congress did not know what to do.
Iturbide solved the problem by staging an army
demanded that Iturbide be made emperor.
pretended that he did not want the position unless it came from
He hurried congress into session, and they fearfully voted
while the army
howled outside. The
interesting: 67 were bullied into voting for him, 15 dared to vote
and 74 refused to vote. Iturbide
was crowned Emperor Agustin I. He
persuaded all the nations of Central America, Texas. and California to
him--so he really did rule an empire.
Iturbide was good at plotting revolution, but poor at
broke down, so he sent them home and ran the country by himself.
His biggest problems were financial.
He paid the army all the money he had, and then printed
money to give them. When
payments got too far behind, General Santa Anna revolted.
With problems too big for him, Iturbide resigned after
just eight months
as emperor. Besides,
out, the government had gotten way behind on paying his salary.
He sailed to Italy, and wrote a book.
The Mexican government paid him a high pension to stay out
country forever, but the next year he landed in Mexico
with more paper money and promotions for army officers.
He did not know he had been outlawed.
Some local law enforcement agents grabbed him and shot him
as soon as he
landed. It was an
for the man who gave Mexico its independence.
SANTA ANNA: JACK-IN-THE-BOX PRESIDENT
One man stole the spotlight during the first forty years
of the Mexican
nation--Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.
was a soldier with no particular ability, but shifty enough to usually
end up on
the winning side. He
dishonest, power-hungry, a parading fool.
the Mexican people loved him for his cat-like ability to always land on
during a crisis.
Santa Anna fought against the first Mexican
He later joined Iturbide who promised him promotions.
But he felt that his promotions did not come fast enough,
so he led the
revolution which drove Iturbide out of power.
Mexico became a republic.
years later, a conservative won the election for president--even though
anyone had voted for him. Santa
Anna led a revolution which overturned the election and put the
candidate in office. Then
conservatives revolted two years later and seemed to be winning.
Santa Anna joined them against the liberal he had placed
Two years after that, he led a liberal revolt against the
president he had helped put into office.
As a popular hero, he then ran for the presidency and won.
In his amazing career, Santa Anna took office as president
This is partly because he would resign when an unpopular
decision had to
be made. Then when
blundered, he would lead a small revolt, claiming he was still the
his terms in
office fall into four groups: 1832-36, 1839-44, 1847, 1853-55.
During his first stretch as president, Texas declared its
Santa Anna led his army to victory at the Alamo, against
Jim Bowie, and other adventurers.
in another battle, Santa Anna, himself, was captured.
He persuaded the Texans to free him by promising to
the Mexican government in favor of Texan independence.
When they finally freed him, he ignored his promise
his term of office had run out.
After losing Texas, Santa Anna lived in disgrace.
But just two years later, France invaded Mexico to collect
a lot of
unpaid government debts. (Mexicans called it the Pastry War because the
ridiculous debt on the list was for damages to some French pastries in
during one of the revolutions.) Without
asking permission from anyone, Santa Anna took over control of the army
an unauthorized charge. A
cannonball shot his leg off. But
had become a public hero once more.
pretty much controlled the government during the next few years.
Mexico lost the Pastry War, and the Mexican people lost
faith in their
Santa Anna led a
revolt, and had congress make him dictator for a second stretch.
He buried his leg in a magnificent marble shrine.
He put on parades and extravaganzas to keep the people
happy. To pay for
all of this, he taxed everything he could think
of--including windows. When
out of money to pay the army, they revolted.
The mob threw his leg in the sewer, and he was banished to
Cuba for ten
But just a year later, the land-hungry United States
declared war on
Mexico. The Mexican
government and army had such poor leaders that
even old General Zachary Taylor could beat them.
The conservatives decided that the only way to restore
order was to
invite a European prince to become king of Mexico.
To stop that plan, the liberals in 1847 offered the
leadership to Santa Anna. He
persuaded the United States to let him pass into Mexico by promising to
undermine the Mexican government.
brought Taylor's army to a standstill, and became a popular hero again.
Then came another American army led by General Scott,
which wiped out
Santa Annals army. He
money from the American invaders (telling them he needed it to
government) and raised a new army.
beat this army too, and marched into Mexico city.
Santa Anna resigned so he would not have to sign the
embarrassing surrender of half of Mexico’s land.
For the first time, no one wanted to be president.
Someone remembered that according to the long-ignored
supreme court justice was supposed to take over if the president
The judge warned that Santa Anna would be brought to trial
for losing the
war, so the slippery ex-president persuaded the United States officials
him escape to Jamaica.
For the next six years, the liberals tried to rule, but
control and invited Santa Anna back to rule for one year only, while
for a European prince to become king.
Anna made himself dictator for a fourth stretch.
When it came time for him to give way for a king, he
changed his title to
Most Serene Highness, and stayed on.
sold more land--the Gadsden Purchase--to the United States so he could
army. When he ran
out of money the
liberals and army revolted. He
to Venezuela, planning to return soon,
But Mexico went through terrific changes after that. In the new Mexico, people
had no patience for a colorful
clown like Santa Anna. He
come back many times, but was always stopped at the border. Twenty years later, the
government allowed him to come
home--blind and poor-to die in Mexico City.
GOOD GUYS ON BOTH SIDES--MAXIMILIAN AND JUAREZ
In one of Mexico's many revolutions, the president saved
his skin by
joining the revolutionaries. He
turned over the government to the revolutionary leader.
Then the unexpected happened: the chief justice of the
supreme court, an
Indian named Benito Juarez (bay-NEE-toe WAH-race), claimed that he was
president according to the constitution.
laughed, because everyone knew that the president was whoever had the
army behind him. Juarez
but the constitution, which no one had paid any attention to in years.
But he was a stickler for the law.
was also a grim little man who never gave up.
He gathered an army and fought a three-year civil war to
election to a second term.
Juarez represented a new generation of tough-minded
Through study and hard work, he had pushed his way up in
the white man's
world. He felt
suspicious of those
above him who blocked his progress, and he had little respect for the
still back on the farms who had not climbed upward.
But a mixed-race middle class was growing in Mexico, and
represented their rising ambitions.
Juarez believed that Mexico's worst enemy was the corrupt
church. So he took
lands and sold them. He
did the same to the Indians' lands.
To organize Mexico’s awful finances, he
announced that he
would postpone paying the huge national debt owed to foreign countries.
France, Spain, and England sent soldiers to Mexico to
collect the money
owed to them. Juarez
hid in the
But France had secret ambitions to make Mexico part of the
Napoleon III thought this was the ideal time to do it,
because the United
States was busy with its own civil war.
Mexican conservatives still wanted a king to rule them.
So Napoleon suggested the young blue-eyed blond-boarded
crown prince of
Austria, Maximilian. Mexican
leaders staged a fake election, and presented
Maximilian with six-and-a-half million signatures asking him to come be
emperor. Only after
he had ruled in
Mexico for a while, did Maximilian realize there wore not
people in all the land who could write their names.
Maximilian soon disappointed those who had brought him.
He fell in love with Mexico, and wanted what seemed best
for its real
people--the Indians. He
Juarez that the church was corrupt, and would not give it back its
He did not trust the French army, and promoted Indians to
the head of the
Mexican army. He
built parks; he
brought beauty and culture to grubby Mexico City.
Maximilian was a Romantic idealist who wanted to be a
gracious ruler, rather than getting down to the gritty business of
war against Juarez. He
Juarez' honesty, and hoped the two of them could work together.
When the United States finished its civil war, France
decided it was time
to get out--leaving Maximilian with no help and more debts.
The emperor's wife cracked under the strain, and went
insane while in
Europe trying to raise help for Mexico.
Maximilian learned that most Mexicans had never wanted him to come, he
about resigning and going home. But
that seemed cowardly; he decided to stay and die like a king if
Meanwhile, Juarez' term as president had expired, but he
refused to give
up the title. It
was an interesting
situation: a liberal led the conservatives, and a conservative led the
Maximilian was the wrong man for all the right reasons;
Juarez was the
right man for many of the wrong reasons.
Mexican people chose Juarez--for he was one of them,
Juarez captured Maximilian.
all over the world asked that he be spared.
Juarez refused. Maximilian
died with dignity and grace before a firing squad, shouting "Long live
Mexico." Juarez won
to a third term. He
building public schools to replace the church schools, so that others
through education as he had done.
one really won the next election, so Juarez stayed on for a fourth term. He died a year later of a
A little chapel now stands on the hill where Maximilian
died, But sayings
of Juarez cover the walls, and a huge black statue of Juarez stands
Mexican schoolchildren learn that Maximilian was the bad
guy and Juarez
was the good guy. History
PORFIRIO DIAZ--MODERNIZER OR MONSTER?
Porfirio Diaz (por-FEER-yo DEE-as) ruled Mexico for
from 1876 to 1910. Some
people say he was the greatest leader Mexico ever had.
Others say he was the worst dictator Mexico ever had.
He may have been both.
As a young man, Diaz had studied law under Juarez.
Both times when Juarez fought civil wars to become
president, Diaz fought
for him. But Diaz
did not fight
under Juarez. He
would go off to
another part of Mexico and win more battles than Juarez did.
But after Juarez finally became president, Diaz challenged
twice ran against
Juarez for the presidency, and lost.
Juarez died and Diaz lost a third election, he led a revolt and became
anyway. Four years
later, he let
his puppet become president. But
the next election, Diaz won; he did not let go of his power again.
Diaz was always careful to obey the constitution.
He went through the motions of an election every few
years, but he made
sure his people counted the ballots.
put his people in every important office.
solved the crime problem by having all small criminals shot as soon as
he gave bigger criminals the choice of becoming policemen.
He got rid of any dangerous generals in the army by making
would not allow
newspapers to criticize. Diaz
sure that no clever young politician rose high enough to challenge him.
The result was many years of peace after the long history
With stable government, the economy began to straighten
industries in to develop Mexico’s mineral and oil deposits.
Progress boomed--railroads, telegraph, electricity, sewers.
The rest of the world quit laughing at Mexico and treated
Diaz, Mexico grew
into a scientific and modern nation.
Unfortunately, all of this development brought prosperity
to the cities,
while the people in the countryside became poorer than ever.
Diaz took the last of the Indian lands, and treated the
miserably--even though he was part Indian himself.
He felt that these people blocked industrial progress.
Farms became the huge property of a few people.
A farm might grow so big that it included several cities
inside it. Most
people owned no land at all. Eighty-five
percent of all farmland belonged to foreign
belonged to a handful of wealthy Mexicans.
The other four percent was all that the common people
Diaz ruled on. He
started as a liberal, but grew more and more conservative.
When he was nearly eighty, he announced that Mexico was
ready for real
democracy, and that he would not run for president again.
The white-haired old man presided in glory over
But when election time came, he decided to run after all.
He announced the results--only 196 votes against him in
all of Mexico.
This was such an obvious lie that people grew outraged,
around the palace calling for his resignation.
After having many of them shot, he gave in.
He left Mexico, convinced that he had saved his country
THE REAL MEXICAN REVOLUTION--MADERO AND CARRANZA
When a Mexican speaks of the Mexican Revolution, he refers
not to the
revolution of 1810, but to the much larger revolution of 1910.
It had been exactly one hundred years since Father Hidalgo
the first revolution with the cry of equal rights for the poor people.
During the next century colorful and exciting Mexican
leaders rode across
the pages of history, but the poor people became even poorer.
Nothing had really changed.
1910, people felt ready for a real revolution.
Yet the revolution surprised everyone--especially the man
himself leading it. He
squeaky-voiced little politician named Francisco I. Madero (ma-THAY-ro).
He simply ran for election against the long-time dictator,
Politicians expected that Diaz would win as usual.
But this time people listened.
became worried and locked Madero in jail until the election was over. Diaz probably won the
election, but he lied so badly about
the number of votes, that people all over Mexico decided they had had
Several revolts broke out.
their surprise, the revolutionaries won.
suddenly became president.
Madero was a rich young do-gooder who did not understand
the needs of the
poor people who had put him into office.
had no real plan. But
president had courage. He
boldly against foreign businessmen who had been exploiting Mexico.
So the United States ambassador helped General Huerta
a quick rebellion. The
general had Madero whisked away and shot.
he was dead, the Mexican people decided that Madero had been a genuine
The next president lasted 46 minutes.
Now the second stage of the revolution began--a bloody
civil war against
General Huerta and the army. One
the governors, Venustiano Carranza (kah-RAHN-sah), led the demand for
constitutional government. He
white-bearded man who wore blue-tinted spectacles.
Actually, there were three revolutionary armies: Pancho
Villa's in the
north, Zapata’s in the South, and Carranza's in central
After a long and violent fight, they won.
Then the three leaders began fighting against each other. Carranza won that struggle.
Now began the third and most important stage of the
Carranza called a constitutional convention.
The delegates drafted
reforms far beyond what Carranza had
expected. They not
politics, they also made arrangements to give the land back to the
people. And they
drafted labor laws
which moved far ahead of any others in the world in 1917.
The political revolution had become a revolution of the
The drafters of the constitution realized that many of
would have to come gradually, but they put them in writing as a promise
Both Germany and the United States tried to drag Mexico
into World War I,
but Carranza steered clear. Politics
inside the country remained confused.
five years, some army officers revolted.
grabbed all of the money he could carry, and tried to flee. Soldiers ambushed him.
Both Madero and Carranza had fought for democracy, The
reform went beyond anything they had imagined.
They each led the way as far as they could.
Then the revolution passed them by.
Mexicans today honor these two heroes for the necessary
parts they played
in the greater struggle.
BANDIDO PATRIOTS: ZAPATA AND PANCHO VILLA
At first, the Mexican Revolution of 1910 looked like all
Mexican revolutions: a power struggle between politicians.
But it quickly grew into a struggle of the poor people for
Two bands of outlaws caused that change.
Their leaders were Emiliano Zapata (sa-PA-ta) and a man
called himself Pancho Villa (VEE-ya).
The Indian farmers of the southern mountains started the
with Zapata as their leader. When
they could stand their ill-treatment no longer, they began capturing
and dividing the land among the poor.
trusted no politician--for politicians had been giving empty promises
hundred years. He
the dictator Diaz, and against every one of the men who tried to
The army could not find his band, for they quietly farmed
by day, and
slipped away on raids at night. Of all the leaders in the Mexican
people feared Zapata the most. He
stood for real change, and was a different type of leader than they
to--quiet, shy, incorruptible. Of
all the leaders in the revolution, he was really the only one who did
out on part of his ideals.
Up near the Texas border, Pancho Villa led a gang of
rustlers long before
he decided politics was a better racket.
the revolution had gone on quite a while, he announced that he favored
it made a good
excuse to steal and rape and burn and kill.
Villa's flambouyant methods attracted worldwide attention. He took over the
railroads, and used them to whisk his
raiders all over northern Mexico.
held press conferences for newspapermen from the United States. He represented both the
last of the cowboys and the first of
Three armies closed in on the
government--Zapata’s, Villa’s, and
and Villa both
reached Mexico City at about the same time.
The city folks feared what these lower-class outlaws from
might do. Zapata’s
dressed in their white farm clothes and huge sombreros, went from door
quietly asking for food. Villa's
cowboys stole what they needed, shot up the liquor stores, and amused
in drunken parties.
But Zapata and Villa remained only local heroes--not
Only President Carranza could pull the whole country
behind him, so they
had to step aside. When
called a constitutional convention, the delegates from
Zapata’s group had the
largest impact on what that document should include.
For they were the only group with a real plan other than
They wrote sweeping land reforms, and changed the
structure of the whole
society. No longer
could Mexico be
the land of the few rich white people and the many poor Indians. From now on, it would be
the land of la Raza, the
strong mixture of free and proud people.
Two years later, an army leader decided to make a name for
leading Zapata Into an ambush of six hundred rifles, which killed him
Meanwhile, Villa raided an American town because he felt
angry that the
United States had recognized Carranza as president rather than himself.
The American army wanted to invade Mexico, but Carranza
bought Villa off with a large ranch and a house full of servants.
He died three years later, when someone riddled his car
CARDENAS: THE PROMISE FULFILLED
The Mexican constitution of 1917 promised land and better
conditions for the peasants. Through
the 1920s, military dictators granted those rights ever so slowly.
But one thing the revolution had accomplished: no dictator
remain in office beyond the six years of his term as president.
So when the dictator in 1934 had to retire, he saw to it
that the next
president was a man he thought he could manage--Lazaro Cardenas
Cardenas campaigned among the Indians, the farmers, the
And with their support, he made the former dictator and
his cronies leave
the country. Then
putting the long-delayed promises into effect.
Cardenas dreamed of making Mexico a nation of small
He distributed millions of acres to the poor.
But the change came much too late.
population had swelled so much that there was no longer enough land to
around. And other
discovering that the days of the small farmer had ended.
Modern farming required giant machines, scientific
control, and vast
tried to adapt to
the modern market by setting the peasants up on large collective farms.
The experiment failed.
fell. And this
happened in the
middle of the World Depression when food and money were scarce.
Mexico would have sunk into trouble, except that Cardenas
was also busy
turning it into an industrial nation.
unions struck for higher wages, he gave them legal support.
He made the railroads a government enterprise.
When the unions complained that they could run the
railroads better, he
let them try. They
soon gave up,
and the nation took control once more.
The most dramatic decision came on oil.
Companies from the United States and England had long been
their Mexican workers. Cardenas
backed the workers’ demand for fair wages.
So did the supreme court.
foreign industrialists refused to obey the Mexican law, and insulted
doubting his word. The
Mexico united in anger as they never had united before.
With great popular support, Cardenas nationalized the oil
is, he bought them out and made them Mexican.
Over the next several years, small countries all over the
this example--but Mexico led the way.
pay off the original owners, the Mexican people took up a collection.
The rich gave money and jewels; the poor contributed in
pigs; even the church gave up some of its gold ornaments.
Most of the money, though, came from profits--after losing
the first awkward years of learning.
foreign oil executives accused Cardenas of being a Communist, but he
Mexico today is a united and prospering nation--moreso
than any other in
Latin America. Leaders
Cardenas have followed his example.
political revolutions have ended.
has begun to enjoy the harvest of the social revolution whose seeds
by so many Mexican heroes so long ago.
CANADA, THE QUIET NEIGHBOR
Compared to Mexico, the history of Canada has been
almost dull. But
colorful incidents and colorful personalities have popped
up. Here are some
Canada belonged to France.
1755, France and England were preparing for war to decide which
would control all North America. England
had already captured Acadia (today known as Newfoundland, the peninsula
outs south into the Atlantic next to Maine).
The English commander feared that in the coming war, the
would remain loyal to France. So
destroyed the colony, rounded up all of the settlers he could find, and
them off to be scattered through the English colonies to the south.
Families, friends, and lovers became separated.
Some eventually found their way back to Canada.
Others drifted south to the French colony at New Orleans,
where they are
still known by the shortened name of Cajuns.
The American poet, Longfellow, wrote Evangeline,
a long poem about
separated Acadian lovers. For
generations, most American schoolchildren studied it.
In the 1860s, just before Canada became a nation, an
Indian chief far to
the west set an example of peaceful accomplishment.
The Crees had chosen Maski-pitoon for their chief, because
of his bravery
in battle. But
listening to the
advice of his old father, the young chief decided to end the centuries
with their neighbors. Unarmed
alone, he walked out to face a war party.
many times he walked into enemy camps to discuss ways of finding peace. He even forgave the man
who murdered his father.
When missionaries arrived, he used the teachings of the
Bible to further
support his appeal for peace. Maski-pitoon's
bravery became so respected that a young man decided to make a name for
by assassinating the famous chief at a peace conference.
JOHN A. MACDONALD
There were two Canadas.
Canada (upriver to the south) became English-speaking and Protestant.
Lower Canada (downriver to the north) remained
colonies grew to
the east and west. An
newspaperman named Thomas D'Arcy McGee moved to Canada and persuaded
these colonies to join into one strong nation in 1867.
Irishmen from the United States assassinated McGee,
because they had
hoped the United States would rule all North America.
Sir John A. Macdonald was a hard-drinking politician from
He formed the first Canadian government, and welded the
He stretched the Canadian nation all the way across to the Pacific
had a railroad built to tie all of the regions together.
He governed Canada almost all of the time from its
beginning in 1867 to
his death in the 1890s.
People of mixed French and Indian ancestry settled the
They elected Louis Riel (LOO-ee ree-EL) as their leader.
When Canada decided to expand westward, the local people
were not asked
whether they wanted to join the new nation, So when the new governor
1869, Riel and the local people chased him into the United States.
Canada sent an army, and the people gave up without firing
Riel fled to the United States, where he spent much of his
time in an
Then the railroad came, and began seizing the Indian and
lands. Once again
the people rose
in rebellion, and sent for Riel to lead them.
In 1885, serious war broke out.
the end, the Indians and French-Indians lost, and Riel was hanged.
For over two centuries, Canada has had a French minority
But one French Catholic rose above all prejudices of race
and religion to
become prime minister. Sir
Laurier (LOR-ee-ay) guided Canada for fifteen years from 1896 to 1911.
His quiet and polite manners won the hearts of all people,
and set the
tone of orderly Canadian government which has followed ever since.
His administration brought Canada its great boom of
The Doukhobors had been peace-loving farmers in Russia.
When the Czar's government tried to draft them into the
army, they burned
their weapons and moved to western Canada in 1899.
Three groups soon developed: those who prospered on huge
those who prospered on their own private farms, and the Sons of Freedom
feared that prosperity was leading people away from a simple spiritual
Within four years, the Sons of Freedom began burning their
burning their clothes, and marching nude--men, women and children--to
demonstrate their spiritual ideals.
These demonstrations continued over the next sixty years.
Canadian authorities insisted that the Doukhobors could
not educate their
own children. Fires
and bombings of government schools turned violent, as a
few Doukhobors forgot their peaceful tradition.
But all united to demonstrate against having any part in
World War II.
Today, the Doukhobors are merging into Canadian society.
Canada has produced several outstanding conservationists.
Perhaps the most famous was Grey Owl who, in the 1930s.
toured England in
his Indian clothes, and even lectured the king.
Grey Owl and his fourth wife lived with beavers.
The beavers trusted him so much they even built a lodge
inside his cabin.
Grey Owl wrote popular books about the personalities and
antics of each
of his beaver friends. He
cameramen to come make films of his trusting beavers at work.
The day after Grey Owl died, the truth suddenly became
known: he was not
an Indian at all. He
had been an
English schoolboy who always dreamed of going off to America to live
Indians. But Grey
Owl was one of
those rare individuals who carried out his dreams.
He lived with the Indians and learned their love for
nature; they adopted
him into their tribe and gave him his name.
Was he a fraud? Or
was he one of the most genuine human beings of the twentieth century?
William Lyon Mackenzie King governed Canada through most
of the 1920s,
30s and 40s. (He
should not be
confused with his grandfather, William Lyon Mackenzie, a rebel leader a
years before.) King
business and economics. He
steered Canada through the Great Depression and World War
II. And he
negotiated Canada into
gradual independence from England.
last nearby British colonies then joined the nation.
His opponents knew him as a scrappy little man.
In 1980, the citizens of Quebec voted not to separate from
form their own French-speaking nation.
had come that close to splitting in two.
man who saved the union was Pierre Elliott Trudeau (true-DOE), who
Canada most of the time from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s.
As soon as he came into office, he had made Canada
forced most government officials to learn to speak both English and
People on both sides of the language barrier grumbled and
said they would
rather separate. Yet
they had come
to love Trudeau, as they watched the dashing prime minister marry an
young woman, begin a family, and then see his marriage collapse.
He eventually convinced voters that his bilingual approach
reasonable than separation.
People on both sides of the language barrier grumbled and
said they would
rather separate. Yet
they had come
to love Trudeau, as they watched the dashing prime minister marry an
young woman, begin a family, and then see his marriage collapse.
He eventually convinced voters that his bilingual approach
reasonable than separation.
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